Category Archives: Men’s Health

High Fat Food Goes Straight To Your Bloodstream

We know that greasy burgers and fries are no health food. But in this 2 minute ABC news clip, you can actually see how all that saturated fat affects the bloodstream – in real time.

The fat globules clog the blood vessels, making it harder for the heart to pump blood. But the buildup also has cognitive side effects – look for the rats swimming through a maze towards the end of the video.

Reminder: not all fats are created equally. Fat is an essential part of our diet. You just need to choose the healthy type that is commonly founds in nuts and seeds, avocados and fish.

Amongst other things, a high fat meal causes a temporary deterioration of artery function. Juice Plus+ was shown to significantly reduce these negative effects in a study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Hope for stopping heart disease from a Tomato?



Taking a tomato pill a day could help keep heart disease at bay, say UK scientists who have carried out a small but robust study.

The trial, which tested the tomato pill versus a dummy pill in 72 adults, found it improved the functioning of blood vessels.

The pill contains lycopene, a natural antioxidant that also gives tomatoes their color.

Experts have suspected for some time that lycopene might be good for avoiding illnesses, including certain cancers and cardiovascular disease.

There is some evidence that eating a Mediterranean-style diet, which is rich in tomatoes (as well as other fruit and vegetables and olive oil), is beneficial for health.

Following a healthy diet is still advisable but scientists have been researching whether there is a way to put at least some of this good stuff into an easy-to-take pill.

What is Lycopene?

  • A natural antioxidant – substances thought to protect the body’s cells from damage.
  • Found in tomatoes, but also in apricots, watermelon and papaya as well as pink grapefruit.
  • Lycopene content varies according to the variety of tomato and how it is prepared eg. puree, ketchup, cooked or raw.
  • It is unclear whether supplements would ever be able to replace the benefits of a varied diet.

Tomato pill

Funded by the Wellcome Trust, the British Heart Foundation and the National Institute of Health Research, a team at Cambridge University set out to see if a tomato pill would have the desired effect.

They recruited 36 volunteers known to have heart disease and 36 “healthy” controls, who were all given a daily tablet to take, which was either the tomato pill or a placebo. To ensure a fairer trial, neither the volunteers nor the researchers were told what the tablets actually contained until after the two-month study had ended and the results were in.

For comparison, the researchers measured something called forearm blood flow, which is predictive of future cardiovascular risk because narrowed blood vessels can lead to heart attack and stroke.

In the heart disease patients, the tomato pill improved forearm blood flow significantly, while the placebo did not.

The supplement had no effect on blood pressure, arterial stiffness or levels of fats in the blood, however.

Lead researcher Dr Joseph Cheriyan said the findings, published in PLoS One journal, were promising, but added: “A daily ‘tomato pill’ is not a substitute for other treatments, but may provide added benefits when taken alongside other medication.”

“However, we cannot answer if this may reduce heart disease – this would need much larger trials to investigate outcomes more carefully.”

Prof Jeremy Pearson of the British Heart Foundation said big studies were needed to see if this could become a viable option for patients.

Six clinical studies have demonstrated significant improvement in markers of Heart Health for those taking Juice Plus+, including significant increases in levels of lycopene (over 2000% increase in one study).

Why People Who Sleep Longer Achieve More

Our society puts a high value on achievement but not much on rest. I hear people brag about how much they work and play but never how much they sleep—usually the opposite. But what if sleep could help you achieve more?

Thanks to Michael Hyatt for his inspiration for this article.

Why People Who Sleep Longer Achieve More

There have been times when pressures and deadlines ramp up and I’ve paid the price. Sometimes I didn’t sleep well for a few weeks. Perhaps you can identify.

The Sleep Deficit

In our high-risk, high-reward economy, there’s a healthy pressure to do more with less. It makes sense with time and money. But it’s a productivity killer when it comes to sleep.

Experts say we need about eight hours a night. But the national average is about 6.8. The truth is the real average might even be lower. We usually report how much time we spend in bed, not how much time we actually sleep. It turns out we only get about 80 percent as much sleep as we think.

Why aren’t we getting enough sleep?

The Myth of Sleepless Productivity

Maybe it came too easy for us in college or we’ve watched too many movies, but it’s easy to think that one hour of lost sleep is equal to one hour of bonus productivity. I’m afraid it doesn’t work that way.

I’ve discovered by first-hand experience that sixty minutes of one does not equal sixty minute of the other.

I’m not saying that we don’t face emergencies and need to give up sleep every now and then. But our lack of sleep isn’t usually about emergencies.

We act as though sleep was a luxury or an indulgence; as a result, sacrificing sleep in the name of productivity has become routine.

But the opposite’s true. Cheating our sleep is like maxing our credit cards. There’s a benefit now—at least, it feels like it—but the bill always comes due in the form of decreased health and mental ability.

No one would choose to be sick and stupid, but depriving our bodies of sleep is the same thing. Robbing our sleep is robbing our productivity.

Four Crucial Ways Sleep Helps Us Achieve More

There are several ways sleeping more at night can help us accomplish more during the day:

  1. Sleep keeps us sharp. How many times have you gone blank in a meeting, nodded at your desk, or forgot where you were going? Skimping on sleep—even a little—can dramatically impair our mental performance, creating fatigue, inability to focus, slow reaction times, and more. In one study test subjects going on six hours of sleep a night for two weeks functioned at the same level of impairment as someone legally drunk! But those who got eight hours demonstrated no impairment at all.
  2. Sleep improves our ability to remember, learn, and grow. I’m sure brain teasers are fine, but adequate sleep is the best learning tool there is. Our minds are particularly active when we sleep, integrating new information learned during the day, processing memories, and sorting the significant from all the meaningless stuff we pick up. Even dreaming is critical to this process. If our work depends on our creativity and insight—and whose doesn’t?—then sleep is essential.
  3. Sleep refreshes our emotional state. Nothing can make us feel depressed, moody, and irritable like missing sleep. Here’s the good news: Getting enough sleep is like hitting the reset button. In his book Eat Move Sleep, Tom Rath explains that sleep reduces stress chemicals in the brain and dials back the part of the brain that processes emotions. The result is that we can start fresh if we invest in our sleep.
  4. Sleep revitalizes our bodies. We all have a body clock. When we ignore its signals to play longer or work more, we create unnecessary stress, and that stress contributes to depression, fatigue, weight gain, high blood pressure, and a lot worse.But sleep lowers the stress chemicals in our bodies, boosts our immune system, and improves our bodies’ metabolism. Instead of waking un-rested after putting in extra hours on a project, why not wake approach it recharged the next day? You’ll do better work and feel better about it.

Bottom line: Instead of thinking of sleep as self-indulgence, we need to think of it as self-improvement.

The quality of our sleep is even more important than the quality, but that’s a topic for another day; except to say that one of the most reported benefits of Juice Plus+ is better quality of sleep.

There’s nothing wrong with doing more with less, but if we’re not smart about it, we can really hurt our productivity and even our health. It hardly matters what the short term gains are if we try making that our norm.

If we want to get ahead, we need to go to bed.

Since leaving the corporate rat race 23 years ago for the Juice Plus+ Business, I’ve averaged consistently 8-8.5 and it’s made a big difference.

Fruits and Vegetables Associated with Lower Risk of Stroke

Would you be surprised to find out that adding just one extra apple to your daily diet could cut your risk of stroke by one third? That was the amazing finding of a new study published in the journal Stroke, which sought to find out if eating fruits and vegetables is associated with stroke prevention.

What is a stroke, exactly? The best way to describe it is a “brain attack,” because a stroke is caused by the same thing as a heart attack: insufficient blood flow leading to oxygen deprivation. The main difference is that during a heart attack, cardiovascular blood flow becomes obstructed and causes damage to the heart, while during a stroke, cerebral blood flow is blocked and causes damage to the brain. There are two types of stroke: ischemic (caused by blood clots) and hemorrhagic (caused by ruptured blood vessels.) Stroke is serious: It is the fourth-leading cause of death in the United States and a common cause of disability.

The new study analyzed the results of 20 previous studies, published over 19 years in the U.S., Europe, and Asia and involving over 760,000 subjects, who had a total of 16,891 strokes. After controlling for other factors that contribute to stroke risk — such as smoking, alcohol consumption, blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, and level of physical activity — the researchers found that eating fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of stroke. This finding held true for men and women, across ages, and for both types of stroke.

How significant were the reductions in risk? For every 200 grams of fruit consumed, stroke risk dropped by 32 percent.  For every 200 grams of vegetables, it dropped by 11 percent. In case you’re not in the habit of measuring your food in grams — and I know I’m not — 200 grams is about one large apple or one and a third cups of broccoli. That’s a huge reduction in stroke risk from a relatively small portion of fruits and/or vegetables! Researchers specifically mentioned citrus fruits, apples, pears, and leafy vegetables as potentially protective.

Lead researcher Dr. Yan Qu put it this way: “Improving diet and lifestyle is critical for heart and stroke risk reduction in the general population… In particular, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is highly recommended because it meets micronutrient and macronutrient and fiber requirements without adding substantially to overall energy requirements.”

(I was curious as to why fruits were three times more protective than vegetables so I did a little research. It turns out that white-fleshed fruits like apples and pears, as well as berries, contain a phyto-nutrient called quercetin, which reduces blood pressure. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a major risk factor for stroke.)

USDA guidelines recommend adults consume 7 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. But if you’re like most people, you don’t meet those targets. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Americans only eat fruit 1.1 times a day and vegetables 1.6 times a day. (The report doesn’t say how much they are eating per sitting, but I’m guessing it’s not a lot!)

After reading this new research, I know I’ll be making an extra effort to eat my fruits and veggies to help prevent stroke, whether I’m adding berries to my breakfast smoothie, slicing an apple on my salad, or throwing a handful of spinach into my scrambled eggs. Do you have any special tricks for incorporating more fruits and vegetables into your diet?

Here are two great ways we add fruits and vegetables to our daily diet: Juice Plus+ and the Tower Garden!

Is Juice Plus+ Safe for People with Diabetes?

For people with diabetes, every meal can be a math problem. Because certain categories of foods are limited, diabetics have to count how many servings of these “caution foods” they eat per day. One restricted food is fruit, due to its calorie and sugar content. In fact, most diabetic diets only allow two to three serving of fruit a day, and some limit vegetables to three servings a day. This puts diabetics in a bind: they need the established protective benefits of fruits and vegetables, but they can’t eat the amounts recommended by the USDA for optimum health (9-13 servings per day!).

Fortunately, Juice Plus+ can help bridge the gap. It delivers the whole food nutrition of fresh produce — with almost no sugar, starch (which is converted into sugar), or salt (which may raise blood pressure). That’s because those elements are removed when the fruits and vegetables are turned into powder. As a result, Juice Plus+ is a safe way for diabetics to reap the benefits of fruit and vegetable nutrition that might otherwise be missing from their diabetic diets.

Diabetes is an ever-growing affliction, affecting 25.8 million people, or 8.3 percent of Americans. Especially alarming is the growth of diabetes among kids and teens. In fact, type 2 diabetes — in which the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn’t make enough — rose by 30 percent among kids between 2000 and 2009. If you want to know how bad the problem is consider this: Type 2 diabetes used to be called “adult onset diabetes” because it didn’t strike children. But with skyrocketing rates of obesity, insufficient exercise, and poor dietary choices, even children now get this version of the disease.

However, what fewer people realize is that type 1 diabetes — in which the pancreas makes little or no insulin — is also on the rise, for reasons that are less clear but may be related to overuse of antibiotics. The incidence of this type of diabetes rose by 21 percent in the same time span. Counting both types, there are 187,000 diabetic kids and teens in the United States. That means we’re going to have a whole lot of diabetic adults in a few years worrying if they’re getting enough nutrition from their diets.

Dr. Peter Lodewick, a physician specializing in diabetes, President of the Alabama affiliate of the American Diabetes Association and a diabetic himself, is familiar with that concern. He used to worry that his diabetic diet was missing something until he found out about Juice Plus+. In his book, A Diabetic Doctor Looks at Diabetes, Dr. Lodewick mentions how he can’t eat too many fruits and juices without his blood sugar going up.

Knowing the protective health benefits of fresh fruits and vegetables, I began using a product called “Juice Plus+”. Since using this product, I have felt much more energetic, despite working very long hours, sometimes with minimal sleep. There must be nutrients in the product that I was not getting in my diet.

To be clear, Juice Plus+ is not a treatment for diabetes. However, it is a safe and welcome addition to the diabetic diet, which may be missing key nutritional elements from fruits and vegetables.

complete-varietyAnother product that’s safe for some diabetics* is Juice Plus+ Complete, which provides balanced whole food nutrition in a convenient protein-rich drink mix. Whether you’re mixing it up as a healthful “on-the-go” breakfast, a pre-exercise energy drink, a post-workout recovery drink, or a late night snack, Juice Plus+ Complete has the nutrients, protein, and fiber of whole foods to keep you going. Mix it with milk, soymilk, almond milk, rice milk — or for the lowest caloric impact — water.

*The Complete shake mix contains 11 grams of sugar per serving. Some diabetics can tolerate a small amount of sugar, others cannot even get near the sugar, so whether or not the Complete shake mix is OK for you is a personal decision.

The Link Between Nutrition and Mental Health

Good nutrition not only affects our physical wellbeing, but our mental health as well.

Have you ever felt inspired or overly optimistic after consuming a healthy meal? Or have you felt sluggish and tired after indulging in junk food? Several new studies confirm these are not coincidental experiences.

Maintaining a whole food based diet to ensure your body gets the nutrients it needs from fruits, vegetables and whole grains is crucial to your health in more ways than one. Below we explore how nutrition impacts mental health in three ways.

1.       Brain Power

The brain needs nutrients to function every day, hence the phrase “brain food.” Healthcare professional and Juice Plus+ supporter, Dr. Marla Friedman, PH.D. proposes a strong connection between nutrition and mental health.

She suggests depression, anxiety, mood disorder, insomnia, addictions and other factors can be tied to nutritional health and ultimately improve with a proper diet. Dr. Friedman explains how nutrition affects all parts of us, even the brain because “good nutrition affects memory, focus, concentration, and your mood. Our brain health/emotional health affects every decision we make… when our brains are nourished, we function at a high level. We need whole food nutrition.”

2.       Mood Booster

At some point in time, we have all been guilty of emotional eating or “eating our feelings,” but is there a reason why we eat certain food based on our mood? A recent study by Meryl Gardener, a marketing professor at the University of Delaware, connects the dots between having negative emotions and eating unhealthy foods (as well as having positive moods and eating healthy foods). Her studies look at food choice and mood, while also considering the consumer’s perception of time in the equation, revealing that eating healthy can positively affect your mood. Dr. Leigh Gibson, a psychology professor at the University of Roehamp, also found connections between mental health and nutritional health in his studies. Dr. Gibson’s research revealed that people who are future-focused and think essentially positive make healthier choices. For example, if someone has a positive goal of eating healthier, then that upbeat emotion will influence eating behavior. Dr. Gibson explains, “Achieving goals is part and parcel of emotional experience.” If you get yourself excited about doing something that improves your health, then your actions will reflect your mindset, and you will ultimately achieve your goal.

3.       Overall Mental Wellness

Overall, research exploring the link between diet and mental health is a new frontier of study. However, researchers are now extending studies to learn more about how nutrition affects one’s psychological wellbeing beyond solely mood. For instance, Michael Berk, a professor of psychiatry at the Deakin University School of Medicine in Australia, conducted a study that found “lower rates of depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder among those who consumed a traditional diet of meat and vegetables than among people who followed a modern Western diet heavy with processed and fast foods or even a health-food diet of tofu and salads.” Although there have been few studies correlating healthy eating to alleviating mental illnesses, there have been several case studies suggesting the connection, which has fueled further development of the field of study.

It is important to keep new research developments in the back of your mind when dictating your diet. Having a whole food based diet full of fresh fruits and vegetables is the best thing you can do to ensure good health, both physically and mentally. There are plenty of ways to maintain good health, but we recommend considering Juice Plus+ as an easy option. As Dr. Friedman has said, “Improving people’s nutrition with Juice Plus+ helps empower them to make their lives better. It helps them see that through nutrition, their bodies can heal and improve in ways that they did not know were possible.”

What are your good mood foods? Do you find yourself feeling more uplifted after eating fruits and vegetables? We do every day because of Juice Plus+!

Of course, the two ways we prefer to get our fruits and veggies in abundance are the smart and easy way: Juice Plus+; and the simple and fun way: Tower Garden.

Sugar vs Fat: Which is Worse?

Sugar or fat, which is worse? That’s the question in a recent BBC documentary..

It’s an interesting setup. Two identical twin brothers – both of them doctors – go on a diet for a month. One on an extreme low fat diet, one on an extreme low carb diet (not even vegetables are allowed!).

One twin gave up sugar, the other gave up fat. The findings were more or less what could be expected:


Even though both brothers were at a fairly decent weight to start with, the low-carb brother lost the most weight: 4 kg (9 pounds) vs only 1 kg (2 pounds) for the low-fat brother.

The loss of fat was 1,5 kg on low-carb (a good result in a month) and 0,5 kg on low-fat. Most of the rest was probably fluid. On a very strict low-carb diet you quickly lose a kilo or two of glycogen and water weight.

How much – if any – muscle mass the participants lost is impossible to know as the  test only measures fat mass vs. non-fat mass (including water).

Weight loss should never be the only, or even the most important goal – achieving vibrant health should be the priority; then optimum weight will be the result.

Brain function

For testing the brain function of the brothers the producers chose to make them do stock trading with fake money.

This test is rather dubious, but the low-fat brother wins.

More interesting and relevant is that the low-carb brother complained of feeling “thick-headed”.  Going on an extreme low-carb diet – without even vegetables – can absolutely result in problems concentrating, etc.


For testing their exercise capacity the brothers did “long sessions of uphill cycling”. The low-carb brother predictably loses badly.


The documentary concludes that it’s not about fat or sugar, it’s about avoiding processed food with both fat and sugar in it. This is an excellent start, but not enough.

It’s even more important to focus on what we DO eat. As Dr. David Katz says: “Mostly plant-based diets add years to your life and life to your years.” … and Michael Pollen: “Eat food, not too much, mostly plants.”

So let’s eat lots of fruits, veggies, berries … ie. plants; and focus less on what we should not eat … sugar, fat, etc. That’s a ‘glass is half full’ approach, rather than ‘half empty’. In fact, “the glass is half full and the other half was delicious!” should be our motto!

We have a proven program for achieving vibrant health – just in case you are interested: Transform2014.

An Easy Change to Improve Your Health

Going out to eat used to be a once-in-a-while treat reserved for a birthday, or sports team win. During the late 70s and early 80s it was special and rare for us to take our boys to McDonalds in England (where we lived).

A recent article by reminded me of this … and that, these days, children and adults are spending more time and money on fast food than ever. The USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS) compared the source of calories in Americans’ diet during the seventies and in the first decade of the current millennium.

Calories from fast food consumption almost quadrupled from 3.1% to 13.3% in just 30 years, and, of course, fewer calories are being consumed at home.

The problem with eating out is that the nutritional quality of the food is often lower than even the worst meals at home. Restaurant food tends to be higher in calories; serving sizes are huge; and unhealthy fats and sodium levels are astronomical, sometimes reaching an entire day’s worth in just one meal.

Carbs are usually low quality and most meals consumed in fast food places, even high-end establishments, tend to be low in fiber and other important nutrients.

Solution? Eat more food at home. Eat more food that was made at home. You’ll be able to control the ingredients and the portion size.

You’ll probably save yourself money too.

Ease the (Blood) Pressure

The silent killer  – high blood pressure – is at epidemic levels across the country. Preventable and reversible, high blood pressure — the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease — can be effectively controlled through medication. But what you eat and drink matters, too, and may control it just as well.

There are no warning signs or symptoms of high blood pressure, making regular testing a requirement for healthy living.

“High blood pressure increases the risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney disease and heart failure,” said Dr. Malissa Wood, co-director of the Corrigan Women’s Heart Health Program at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. “Currently, 77.9 million (1 out of every 3) adults have high blood pressure in the United States, and the estimated direct and indirect cost of high blood pressure in 2009 was $51 billion.

dash diet meal“Given that heart disease is the No. 1 killer of Americans and it is highly preventable, we need to focus more on diet – both in maintaining or achieving a healthy weight as well as following a DASH-type diet to stay healthy. DASH stands for dietary approaches to stop hypertension. This includes lots of whole grain products, fish, poultry and nuts. It is rich in potassium, magnesium and calcium, as well as protein and fiber and limits sodium intake to 1,500 mg per day ideally. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, decreasing the average intake of sodium from 3,300 mg to 2,300 mg per day may reduce cases of high blood pressure by 11 million,” Wood said.

“Consuming less sodium is one way to help reduce blood pressure, but it’s not our only option,” said Dr. Rani Whitfield, American Heart Association/American Stroke Association national volunteer spokeswoman. “Foods that are rich in potassium like bananas, sweet potatoes, broccoli, lima beans and peas are heart-healthy options that can help get blood pressure under control,” said the family practitioner from Baton Rouge, La.

Researchers believe that potassium counteracts the effects of sodium and reduces blood pressure. “A recent study also suggests that foods high in nitrates like beets can be helpful in lowering blood pressure”, Whitfield said. “Nitrates open the blood vessels, reducing the blood pressure and increasing blood flow.”

A diet rich in fruits and vegetables like the DASH diet can help control blood pressure and may help prevent high blood pressure. This benefit may be partially derived from the calcium in fresh fruits and vegetables, said Wood.

The American Heart Association recommends eating eight or more fruit and vegetable servings every day. An average adult consuming 2,000 calories daily should aim for 4.5 cups of fruits and vegetables a day. Also, variety matters, so try a wide range of fruits and veggies.

In her “The Heart of the Matter” video (below), Dr. Tamara Sachs (Internal Medicine) discusses her professional experience with heart disease. She says:

“Health is more than the absence of disease: it is a balance between wellness and the many stressors in your life. The more active a participant you are in this dynamic process, the healthier a person you will become.”

“Knowing what you need to do and actually doing it are two different things. Juice Plus+ is a perfect example. Knowing that we should eat more fruits and vegetables is one thing, but actually doing it is quite another. That’s why I recommend Juice Plus+ to all of my patients. It is a powerful and compelling product for those who wish to protect their health. I would never want to be without it. It is my foundational product for my patients, and I rely on it for my health as well.”

In no less than 6 clinical studies Juice Plus+ was shown to significantly improve markers of heart health, including reduction in homocysteine, systemic inflammation and the negative effects of a high fat meal (watch the video!)  Read more on this here and watch a Internal Medicince specialist, Dr. Tamara Sachs below:

Simple Weight Loss Tips You Can Use Today!

losing-weight-has-never-been-easier1If you are like many other people, you’ve made some new year’s resolutions that include healthy eating, exercise, and weight loss. The motivation to succeed is high today, but for most people it evaporates faster than steam from a kettle. Here are 5 tips you can incorporate into your life immediately.

1. Mentally prepare for the long haul. A good weight loss strategy is a lifestyle-change strategy. If you go on a crazy diet and suffer for months to lose weight, you will most likely rebound and regain all your lost pounds. Instead of opting for fast weight loss, think about losing just half a pound a week, but doing it through sustainable modifications to your diet.

2. Eat more at home. Your home has less tempting bad foods – hopefully. Your home has less fat/sugar/salt combos folded into a 1000 calorie appetizer or side dish. Your home has fresh fruits and vegetables (right?). At home you control the portion size. At home there is less social pressure to eat zero-nutrition food. At home there is less pressure to drink more wine or beer.

3. Drink more water. Slowly shift your daily hydration from soft drinks and juices to water.  Yes you can. Doesn’t taste good? There are ways to work around that. Not pure enough? Get a filter. Another excuse? I record my water intake using an iphone app called Water Your Body.

4. Sleep more. This is not a challenge for me, but Americans are sleeping less with each passing year. Tired people are hungry people. Studies have shown that a well rested individual gains less weight than a tired one. Get at least 8 hours every night and try to sleep during the same 8 hours – your body will thank you for consistency.

5. Track your diet. People who keep a food diary lose twice as much weight. It should take no more than 5-10 minutes per day for all snacks and meals. You can use pen and paper, or the Fooducate app, but get started today. The time you spend on your food diary every day can save you more calories than any exercise you can do in those 10 minutes.

How are you kick-starting your healthy eating this year? Want to try our 6-Week Transformation Jump Start?jpt1